Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-4 was developed by the corporations Sederma SA and Proctor & Gamble and originally named Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-3, but later renamed to Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-4 to reflect a correction in the data on its molecular structure, according to research. It is also included in many commercial formulas under the trademark of Matrixyl.
Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-4 is a small, highly specific biologically active peptide which has been reported to stimulate the production of elastin, fribronectin, glycosaminoglycan and collagens (specifically Types I, III, and IV), support of the extracellular matrix and wound healing.
Independent in vitro studies demonstrated an increase in synthesis of Collagen I by 212%, Collagen IV by 100 to 327% and Hyaluronic Acid by 267%. Collagen I is predominant among the 19 forms of collagen found in the human body; therefore increasing production of Collagen I has a very dramatic effect on rebuilding the skin. Six month in vivo studies showed mean wrinkle depth was reduced by 17%, surface area containing deep wrinkles was reduced by 68%, surface area containing moderate wrinkles was reduced by 51% and skin roughness by 16%.