Retinol — (See Vitamin A) A retinoid considered to be a skin revitalizer. It is reported to enhance skin radiance and treat conditions associated with chronological aging, such as wrinkles and fine lines, as well as dermatological disorders, including acne, follicular and lesion papules, actinic keratosis, oily skin, and rosacea. According to clinical dermatologists, retinol is one of the few substances with a demonstrated ability to reduce and prevent fine lines and wrinkles. It is able to alter the behavior of aged cells so they act in a more youthful manner. It is considered necessary for normal epidermal cell growth and differentiation and stimulates the production of new blood vessels in the skin, improving skin tone. In addition, retinol has anti-oxidant capacities and protects dermal fibers by counteracting the increased activity of enzymes that degrade collagen and elastin when the skin is exposed to UV rays. Retinol can be drying to the skin when used for a prolonged period of time or in concentrations that are too high. A weaker retinoid than retinoic acid, retinol converts to retinoic acid once on the skin. When compared to retinoic acid, retinol has an increased penetration potential and is less irritating, making it an effective ingredient for anti-aging products. The anti-aging benefits of topically treating skin with retinol are based on its penetration ability, which allows it to reach the sites in the skin requiring treatment. When used on sensitive skin for a prolonged period of time or in concentrations that are too high, retinol can cause dermatitis.