Vitamin A — (See Retinoic Acid, Retinol, Retinoids and Retinyl Palmitate), Vitamin A is essential for normal skin cell development and differentiation:
- Inhibits collagen breakdown
- Increases collagen synthesis
- Increases elasticity
- Improves water barrier function
- Regulates sebum production, excellent for treating acne as well as aging
- It is the only ingredient we know of that actually reverses the signs of photo-aging
The encouraging news for people with photo-aged skin is how retinoids work to reverse the damage. The magic trick involves:
- Inducing epidermal hyper proliferation
- Inducing a compact stratum corner
- Increasing deposition of glycosaminoglycans in the epidermis
- Proportional decrease in epidermal melanin (due to increase in cells). The more normal cells push out the hyper pigmented ones, making for more evenly balanced skin tones and fewer age spots.
Its skin regeneration properties appear enhanced when combined with Vitamins E and C.